There are at least 12 i sounds. In terms of all possible i sounds, there is the basic most common i sound, the secondary i sound, and the tertiary i sound, as well as long and nasal forms of each.
|i||i||Like "ee" sound.||i|
|I||I||Like "ih" in "pit".||ɪ|
|i5||i#||German i sound.||y ɨ ʏ|
|i^||i&||Like nasal "ee" sound.||ḭ|
|I^||I&||Like nasal "ih" in "pit".||ɪ̰|
|i^5||i#&||German nasal i sound.||y̰ ɨ̰ ʏ̰|
|i%||i_||Long "ee" sound.||iː|
|i%^||i&_||Long nasal "ee" sound.||ḭː|
|I%^||I&_||Long nasal "ih".||ɪ̰ː|
|i%5||i#_||Long German i sound.||yː ɨː|
|i%^5||i#&_||Long German nasal i sound.||y̰ː ɨ̰ː|
There are at least 12 e sounds. In terms of all possible e sounds, there is the basic most common e sound, the secondary e sound, and the tertiary e sound, as well as long and nasal forms of each.
|e||e||Like "day" sound.||e|
|E||E||Like "eh" in "pet".||ɛ|
|e5||e#||Danish e sound.||ø|
|e^||e&||Like nasal "day" sound.||ḛ|
|E^||E&||Long nasal "eh" in "pet".||ɛ̰|
|e^5||e#&||Danish nasal e sound.||ø̰|
|e%||e_||Long "day" sound.||eː|
|e%^||e&_||Long nasal "day" sound.||ḛː|
|E%^||E&_||Long nasal "eh".||ɛ̰ː|
|e%5||e#_||Long Danish e sound.||øː|
|e%^5||e#&_||Long Danish nasal e sound.||ø̰ː|
There are at least 12 a sounds. In terms of all possible a sounds, there is the basic most common a sound, the secondary a sound, and the tertiary a sound, as well as long and nasal forms of each.
|a||a||Like "ah" in father sound.||a ɑ ä|
|A||A||Like "cat" or "mat" a sound.||æ|
|a5||a#||Danish a sound.||œ|
|a^||a&||Like nasal "ah" in father sound.||a̰|
|A^||A&||Like nasal "cat" or "mat" a sound.||æ̰|
|a^5||a#&||Danish nasal a sound.||œ̰|
|a%||a_||Long "ah" sound.||aː|
|a%^||a&_||Long nasal "ah" sound.||a̰ː|
|A%||A_||Long "mat" a sound.||æː|
|A%^||A&_||Long nasal "mat" a sound.||æ̰ː|
|a%5||a#_||Long Danish a sound.||œː|
|a%^5||a#&_||Long Danish nasal a sound.||œ̰ː|
There are at least 12 o sounds. In terms of all possible o sounds, there is the basic most common o sound, the secondary o sound, and the tertiary o sound, as well as long and nasal forms of each.
|o||o||Like "oh" sound.||o|
|O||O||Like "uuh" in "book" sound.||ʊ ɯ|
|1||o#||British oah sound.||ɔ|
|o^||o&||Like nasal "oh" sound.||o̰|
|O^||O&||Like nasal "uuh" in "book" sound.||ʊ̰ ɯ̰|
|1^||o#&||British nasal oah sound.||ɔ̰|
|o%||o_||Long "oh" sound.||oː|
|o%^||o&_||Long nasal "oh" sound.||o̰ː|
|O%||O_||Long "uuh".||ʊː ɯː|
|O%^||O&_||Long nasal "uuh".||ʊ̰ː ɯ̰ː|
|1%||o#_||Long British oah sound.||ɔː|
|1%^||o#&_||Long British nasal oah sound.||ɔ̰ː|
There are at least 12 u sounds. In terms of all possible u sounds, there is the basic most common u sound, the secondary u sound, and the tertiary u sound, as well as long and nasal forms of each.
|u||u||Like "oo" in "you" sound.||u|
|U||U||Like "uh" in "up" sound.||ə ɞ ɐ ɘ ʌ|
|2||u#||English r sound (Tone treats this as a vowel).||ɹ|
|u^||u&||Like nasal "oo" in "you" sound.||ṵ|
|U^||U&||Like nasal "uh" in "up" sound.||ə̰ ʌ̰|
|2^||u#&||English nasal r sound.||ɹ̰|
|u%||u_||Long "oo" sound.||uː|
|u%^||u&_||Long nasal "oo" sound.||ṵː|
|U%||U_||Long "uh".||əː ʌː|
|U%^||U&_||Long nasal "uh".||ə̰ː ʌ̰ː|
|2%||u#_||Long English r sound.||ɹː|
|2%^||u#&_||Long English nasal r sound.||ɹ̰ː|
There are at least 2 m sounds. Notice the English m and mmm have a similar shape.
There are at least 4 n sounds. Notice the English n and nnn have a similar shape.
There are at least 2 q sounds.
|q||q||Regular ng||ŋ ɴ|
|q5||Q||Voiced pharygeal fricative (used a lot in Arabic/Hebrew)||ʕ|
There are at least 2 g sounds.
|g||g||Regular g||ɡ ɢ|
There are at least 7 d sounds. Notice the English d and ddd have a similar shape.
|d66||dQ~||Pharyngealized d (used in Arabic)|
|d06||d?||Implosive d (used in Vietnamese, some African languages, etc.)||ɗ|
There are at least 2 dj sounds.
|dj||dj||Regular dj (as in "judge")||dʒ|
There is at least 1 dz sound.
There are at least 4 b sounds. Notice the English b and bbb have a similar shape.
There are at least 5 p sounds.
|p9||p.||Stopping on the shape of p without saying it||p̚|
|p99||p@||Tense p (used in Korean)||p͈|
There are at least 8 t sounds.
|t0||t.||Stopping on the shape of t without saying it||t̚|
|t00||t@||Tense t (used in Korean)||t͈|
|t4||T||Retroflex t (used a lot in Indian languages)||ʈ|
|t4^||Th~||Aspirated retroflex t (used a lot in Indian languages)||ʈʰ|
There are at least 5 ch sounds.
|tx||tx||Regular ch sound (like English "chip")||tʃ|
|t4x4||TX||Retroflex ch sound (used in Chinese and Indian, for example)||ʈʂ|
|tx5||txy~||Palatalized ch sound (Used in Chinese, for example)||tɕ|
|tx^||txh~||Aspirated ch sound||tʃʰ|
|t4x4^||TXh~||Aspirated retroflex ch sound||ʈʂʰ|
There are at least 11 k sounds.
|k9||k.||Stopping on the shape of k without saying it||k̚|
|k99||k@||Tense k (used in Korean)||k͈|
|k6||K||Deep guttural k (used a lot in Arabic, or Inuktitut)||q|
|k693||K!||Ejective deep guttural k (used a lot in Georgian)||qʼ|
|k6%||Kh~||Aspirated deep guttural k||qʰ|
|k633||Kw~||Labialized deep k||qʷ|
There are at least 2 h sounds.
|h5||H||Harsh h (used in Hebrew/Arabic a lot)||χ|
There are at least 5 s sounds.
|s5||S||Rough s (used a lot in Native American languages)||ɬ|
|s99||s@||Tense s (used in Korean)||s͈|
|s44||sQ~||Pharyngealized s (used a lot in Arabic)|
There are at least 2 f sounds.
|f6||F||Soft f (basically blowing out between your lips)||ɸ|
There are at least 2 v sounds.
|v3||V||Soft v (pressing just your lips softly together, or lips and teeth)||β|
There are at least 3 z sounds.
|z44||zQ~||Pharyngealized z, (used mainly in Arabic words)|
|z6||Z||Rough z (used in some Southern African languages)||ɮ|
There are at least 3 j sounds.
|j||j||Regular j (as in "measure")||ʒ|
|j5||jy~||Palatalized j sound||ʒʲ|
There are at least 3 sh sounds.
|x5||xy~||Palatalized sh||ʃʲ ɕ|
There are at least 3 th sounds.
|c||c||Voiceless th (like English "think")||θ|
|C||C||Voiced th (like English "the")||ð|
|C66||CQ~||Pharyngealized voiced th (used in Arabic)|
There is at least 1 y sound. Notice the English y and yyy have a similar shape, although the Tone yyy is like a Tone OOO with a tail.
There is at least 1 w sound. Notice the English w and www have a similar shape.
There are at least 2 ' sounds. This is a glottal stop in its base form.
|'||'||Regular ', used a lot in Hebrew and Arabic, amongst other languages||ʔ|
|'3||'~||Silent transition sound||.|
There are at least 4 l sounds.
|l3||L||Retroflex l (used a lot in Indian languages)||ɭ|
|l^0||lh!||Voiceless l (used often in Welsh)|
|l66||lQ~||Pharyngealized l, (used mainly in Arabic words)|
There are at least 5 r sounds.
|r||r||Regular r (trilled or flap)||ɾ|
|r5||R||Retroflex r (used in some Indian languages)||ɽ|
|G||G||Velar r like the French r sound||ɣ ʁ|
|r%||rh~||Aspirated regular r|
|r5%||Rh~||Aspirated retroflex r|